Football Hooliganism

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Lokomotive Leipzig fans before their team’s encounter with Dynamo Schwerin in the East German FDGB-Pokal in 1990 Football hooliganism refers to what is widely considered unruly, violent, and destructive behaviour by overzealous football fans. Actions such as brawling, vandalism and intimidation are enacted by association football club fans participating in football hooliganism.[1] A football firm (also known as a hooligan firm) is a gang formed for the specific purpose of antagonising and physically attacking supporters of other clubs. The behaviour is often based upon rivalry between different teams and conflict may take place before or after football matches. Participants often select locations away from stadia to avoid arrest by the police, but conflict can also erupt spontaneously inside the stadium or in the surrounding streets. Football hooliganism can range from shouts, spitting and small-scale fistfights to huge riots where firms attack each other with deadly weapons (including, but not limited to, sports bats, glass bottles, rocks, knives, machetes and even pistols).[2] In some riots, stones, bricks, flares, smoke bombs and even Molotov cocktails [3][4] are thrown. In some cases, stadium brawls have caused fans to flee in panic and injuries have been caused when fences or walls have collapsed from the pressure of the exiting crowd.[5] In some football riots, the chaos spreads to the city area surrounding the football field, and shop windows may be smashed, rubbish bins set on fire,[3][4] and police cars may be overturned. In the most extreme cases, hooligans, police, and bystanders have been killed, and helmeted, body-armoured riot police have intervened with tear gas, police dogs, armoured vehicles and water cannons.[6] Early history The first instance of football violence is unknown, but the phenomenon can be traced back to 14th-century England. In 1314, Edward II banned football (at that time, a violent, unruly activity involving rival villages kicking a pig’s bladder across the local heath) because he believed the disorder surrounding matches might lead to social unrest, or even treason.[7] According to a University of Liverpool academic paper, conflict at an 1846 match in Derby, England, required a reading of the “riot act” and two groups of dragoons to effectively respond to the disorderly crowd. This same paper also identified “pitch invasions” as a common occurrence during the 1880s in English football.[8] The first recorded instances of football hooliganism in the modern game allegedly occurred during the 1880s in England, a period when gangs of supporters would intimidate neighbourhoods, in addition to attacking referees, opposing supporters and players. In 1885, after Preston North End beat Aston Villa 5–0 in a friendly match, both teams were pelted with stones, attacked with sticks, punched, kicked and spat at. One Preston player was beaten so severely that he lost consciousness and press reports at the time described the fans as “howling roughs”.[7] The following year, Preston fans fought Queen’s Park fans in a railway station—the first alleged instance of football hooliganism outside of a match. In 1905, a number of Preston fans were tried for hooliganism, including a “drunk and disorderly” 70-year-old woman, following their match against Blackburn Rovers.[7] Although instances of football crowd violence and disorder have been a feature of association football throughout its history[9] (e.g. Millwall’s ground was reportedly closed in 1920, 1934 and 1950 after crowd disturbances), the phenomenon only started to gain the media’s attention in the late 1950s due to the re-emergence of violence in Latin American football. In the 1955–56 English football season, Liverpool and Everton fans were involved in a number of incidents and, by the 1960s, an average of 25 hooligan incidents were being reported each year in England. The label “football hooliganism” first began to appear in the English media in the mid-1960s,[10] leading to increased media interest in, and reporting of, acts of disorder. It has been argued that this in turn created a ‘moral panic’ out of proportion with the scale of the actual problem.[11] Causes Football hooliganism has a lot in common with juvenile delinquency and “ritualized male violence”.[12] “Involvement in football violence can be explained in relation to a number of factors, relating to interaction, identity, legitimacy and power. Football violence is also thought to reflect expressions of strong emotional ties to a football team, which may help to reinforce a supporter’s sense of identity.”[13] “Numerous causal factors have been offered in previous literature in relation to hooliganism,” including “…alcohol and irregular tickets sales, as well as the “…criminal insouciance (disinterest) of the organisers” and the “…cowardly ineptitude” of the police. The main causes are “the media, the police, the football authorities and opposing fans.”[13] Rowe (2002) states that “football violence is often explained by focusing on genetic and sociological theories.”[13] One observer stated that in the UK, “[h]igh-profile outbreaks of violence involving fans are much rarer today than they were 20 or 30 years ago. The scale of trouble now compared to then doesn’t bear comparison – either in terms of the number of people involved or the level of organisation. Football has moved on thanks to banning orders and better, more sophisticated policing. And while it is too simplistic to say that the higher cost of watching football has pushed unsavoury elements out, there has been a shift in the way people are expected to behave inside grounds. Offensive chants are still way too commonplace but actual fighting doesn’t happen very often.”[14] A football firm (also known as a hooligan firm) is a gang formed for the specific purpose of antagonising and physically attacking supporters of other clubs. Some firms exist to promote fringe political causes, both on the far Left and Right, and, in some cases, the promotion of political ideals through violence is of greater importance than the football club itself. In the 1970s and early 1980s, the “casual” subculture transformed the British football hooligan scene. Instead of wearing skinhead-style, working class clothes, which readily identified hooligans to the police, firm members began wearing designer clothes and expensive “offhand” sportswear (clothing worn without careful attention to practical considerations).[15] Europe Czech police prepare for trouble after a match by suiting up in riot gear. Belgium Hooliganism has been an issue for Belgian football, especially in the 1980s and 1990s. Riots between several major teams, such as Club Brugge, RSC Anderlecht, Standard de Liège, Union Royale Namur, Beerschot and Antwerp FC were common. On May 23, 2008, riots occurred between RSC Anderlecht hooligans and immigrant youth in Brussels. On June 3, 2011, during the Belgium vs. Turkey match, several riots occurred in the city center of Ghent. 30 people were injured. Bosnia and Herzegovina Football hooliganism in Bosnia and Herzegovina is a problem.[citation needed] The biggest problems come from supporters of FK Željezničar Sarajevo (The Maniacs), FK Sarajevo (Horde Zla), HŠK Zrinjski Mostar (Ultrasi) and FK Borac Banja Luka (Lešinari). Also there are many other teams in Bosnia that have hooligans as supporters. FK Sloboda Tuzla (Fukare), NK Čelik Zenica (Robijaši), FK Velež Mostar (Red Army), NK Široki Brijeg (Škripari) have also been causing problems in past. Riots often happen after the games and in restaurants, bars, etc. Bosniak oriented groups are fans of FK Željezničar Sarajevo (The Maniacs), FK Velež Mostar (Red Army), also fans of the FK Sarajevo (Horde Zla). Serb oriented groups are fans of FK Borac Banja Luka (Lešinari), FK Slavija, and associated with Serbs are FK Drina Zvornik (Vukovi). Croat oriented groups are fans of NK Široki Brijeg (Škripari) and HŠK Zrinjski Mostar (Ultras). Large number of Bosnian football hooligans, regardless of ethnic or geographical origin, are aligned with right-wing political ideologies except Fukare and Robijaši. All hooligans in Bosnia and in the whole Balkan region are Ultras. Many of fans are associated with fascistic ideologies, like fans of FK Sloga Doboj (Vojvode) and FK Drina Zvornik(Vukovi) are known for openly supporting Chetniks movement with fans of FK Borac Banja Luka also having Serbian nacionalistic incidents. Fans of NK Široki Brijeg have been knowing for glorifying and supporting Ustaše and Nazi movement.[16] On 04.09.2009 after riots in Široki Brijeg football fan of FK Sarajevo Vedran Puljić was killed after villagers from Široki Brijeg discharged weapon. Furthermore, investigations into the entire incident have been farcical at best. Oliver Knezovic, a Siroki Brijeg local, was a key suspect in the killing[citation needed]. Upon his arrest in the days following the incident, Knezovic somehow made an ‘escape’ from custody, before fleeing to Zagreb in Croatia; where he remains a free man. Hooliganism has also been present in lower leagues. In June 2013 in game that will decide promotion into First League of Federation in Jablanica between FK Turbina Jablanica and FK Igman Konjic in half time after referee was attacked in locker rooms riots in Jablanica started.[17] Riots in Jablanica have been issue for longer time because it´s in half way between Mostar and Sarajevo and fans of both Mostar clubs FK Velež Mostar and HŠK Zrinjski Mostar had clashes there with fans of other teams that were traveling to or from Mostar[18] Bulgaria Football hooliganism is common in Bulgaria. Several teams have organised ultras groups and firms, including CSKA Sofia(Ofanziva, 14, Lulin Boys, Torcida Plovdiv, UCSH, SWCR), Levski Sofia (Sofia Zapad, South Division, HD Boys, Ultra Varna), Botev Plovdiv (CSC), Lokomotiv Plovdiv (Lauta Hools), Minyor Pernik (Teva Boys), Beroe Stara Zagora (Zara Boys), etc. Most of the groups express far-right political views, especially against gypsies and immigrants. There are several feuds between the ultras groups, with the biggest being between CSKA and Levski Sofia fans and between Botev and Lokomotiv Plovdiv supporters. Levski – CSKA rivalry is the long time rivalry between the two most successful clubs in Bulgarian football. Tensions between the supporters of the two clubs are common. The rivalry stems not only from the fact, that both teams are from the same city, but also from the support that was provided to CSKA during the years of communist regime in Bulgaria, when CSKA was the team of the ruling communist party. Numerous occasions of vandalism on the stadiums have occurred, most notably on 26.02.2011 in the derby between Levski and CSKA Sofia played on Georgi Asparuhov Stadium. The rivalry between Botev and Lokomotiv Plovdiv is very strong and the games between those teams are expected with zeal and emotion. Ethnic tension is common, as Lokomotiv is vastly supported by the Bulgarian Roma minority. Botev Plovdiv is the team that has arguably the most supportive supporters, who call themselves Bultras (a term formed from the words Botev and Ultras. Bultras have history of very violent behaviour. Botev is by far the team with the largest stadium support, even when the team was in the third flight of Bulgarian football in 2010-2011. Croatia Football hooliganism in Croatia has seen riots over inter-ethnic resentments and the politics that were reignited by the breakup of the Yugoslav federation in the 1990s.[6] Two of the best known hooligan firms are Torcida (Hajduk Split) and Bad Blue Boys (Dinamo Zagreb).[19] However, the groups are not just hooligan firms; they are more like the South American Torcida supporters groups and Ultras groups, with organised Tifos and so on. On 13 May 1990 (before the breakup of Yugoslavia) Serbian club Red Star Belgrade was in Zagreb to play Dinamo Zagreb at the Maksimir Stadium. Red Star was accompanied by 3000 Delije, the organized supporters of the club. Before the match a number of small fights broke out. Police reinforcements soon arrived with armoured vehicles and water cannons, focusing to separate the fans. Dinamo’s player Zvonimir Boban kicked one policeman, defending a Dinamo’s fan beaten by the police. The fighting lasted for over an hour and hundreds of people were injured. Football hooliganism in Croatia is sometimes connected with racism and nationalism,[6] although the racist remarks, if any appear, are pointed solely to opposing club’s players, never to own squad. Ethnic tension between Croats and Serbs has also led to fighting at a football match in Australia. On 13 March 2005, Sydney United (who have a large Croatian following, and were established by Croatian immigrants) and Bonnyrigg White Eagles (who have a large Serbian following and were established by Serbian immigrants) met in Sydney in the New South Wales Premier League. About 50 fans clashed, resulting in two police officers getting injured and five fans being arrested. Football NSW held an inquiry into the events. Both clubs denied that the fight was racially motivated or that there was any ethnic rivalry.[20] P Croatian hooligans are also notorious for staging large illegal pyroshows at stadiums, where signal flares and smoke bombs are hurled onto the pitch causing postponement or cancellation of the match. A large incident occurred in 2003 in Rome during the Hajduk-Roma match when 900 Torcida fans threw signal flares at Roma fans resulting in various injuries and clashes with the police. Another incident occurred in Genoa in 2007 when masked Torcida fans attacked the police with bricks, bottles and stones. Rioting continued in the stadium when Torcida fans threw chairs into the pitch and made nazi salutes. A riot occurred in 2006 in Osijek during the Osijek-Dinamo match. Several clashes between the Bad Blue Boys and Kohorta occurred before the match in which one Osijek fan received several stab wounds after which Osijek fans attacked the police and Dinamo fans with signal flares and stones. A large riot occurred in 2008 in Prague prior to the Sparta Prague-Dinamo match. Riots were ignited with the support of Sparta’s ultrafans to Radovan Karadžić and Ratko Mladić[21]. Approximately 500 Bad Blue Boys rioted in the city centre breaking shops and attacking police with chairs, signal flares and stones. Approximately 300 Bad Blue Boys were detained and 8 police officer were injured. Prior to the riots some Bad Blue Boys provoked local Romani people by giving nazi salutes. A large riot occurred in 2010 on 1.May at the Maksimir stadium when the Bad Blue Boys clashed with the police resulting in many arrests and one critically injured police officer. After the match violent clashes continued in which one Dinamo fan was shot by police officers. A large incident occurred in 2009 prior to the FC Timişoara-Dinamo match. 400 Bad Blue Boys rioted in the city centre and attacked local people. After the incident Romanian police detained a large number of Dinamo fans but the situation escalated again at the FC Timişoara stadium when 200 Bad Blue Boys tore down the pitch fence and attacked the police with chairs and bats resulting in several injured police officers. During the clash Dinamo fans fired signal missiles at FC Timişoara fans resulting in severe injuries. Many Croatian hooligan groups have also displayed nazi flags at matches and have neo-nazi skinheads in their ranks. Several incidents occurred when Bad Blue Boys and Torcida made racist chants towards opposing club’s football players of black skin descent and hurled bananas in the pitch. In 2010 an Camerun player was attacked in Koprivnica resulting in severe injuries. In December 2010. 10-15 Tornado (Zadar) hooligans attacked an Partizan traveling coach with stones and bricks resulting in one injured person. In December 2010 30-40 Bad Blue Boys attacked an PAOK traveling coach with stones, bricks and flares setting the traveling coach on fire and inflicting injuries on several passengers. Denmark Hooliganism has been a term used in Denmark since the early nineties just one decade after the peaceful roligan culture was introduced in Denmark. Hooligans in Denmark are mostly football fans who engaged in violence at football matches. Hooligans in Denmark usually fight in hooligans groups against other hooligans groups from rival football teams. The hooligan in Denmark usually arranges fights with the counterparts before or after the matches, but the fights can also take place far from the stadium or in the stadium during the matches. The Danish man who attacked the referee during a UEFA Euro qualification match in 2008 between Denmark and Sweden later known as the UEFA Euro 2008 qualifier fan attack has however not been classified as a hooligan. In the beginning of the era of hooliganism in Denmark the hooligans operated with a relatively sharp honor code among themselves, which meant that they only fought with like-minded people, and the use of weapons was not permitted. However in recent years there have been examples of this so-called honor code being disregarded by various Danish hooligan groups. Casuals and hooligans operate close with each other in Denmark and the two groups often overlap each other both at the stadium and outside the stadium in this country. The hooligan groups in Denmark are often linked to the radical right-wing like the radical right-wing group Danish Front. Football hooliganism is regarded as a serious problem in Denmark both too the sport itself and too the Danish society in general. In an attempt to control hooliganism in Denmark the Danish parliament introduced a hooligan registry in 2008. The following hooligan groups have been or are still active hooligan groups in Denmark: White Pride (AGF) formerly Ultra White Pride was the first real nationalist/ racist hooligan group in Denmark. They have existed since 1994. Aarhus Casuals (AGF) usually has a size of about 50 people. However, this may change depending on the significance of the concrete match. Southside United (Brøndby IF) was the first hooligan group in Denmark. The group started under the name Southside Brigade, but was renamed after several groups joined forces. The group consist of about between 170 and 250 people. Blue Front (Brøndby IF) consists of approx. 80 members between 17 and 22 years. Blue Front serves as the youth group to Southside United. Yellow Blue Crew (Brøndby IF) can assemble up to 70 people at big matches. Yellow Blue Crew is a non political group. It started out as a regular ultras group in 2006 but has had a great member replacement and is now back on track, as a more direct casual group consisting of young people in their early 20s. The group is centered around the town of Herlev and also known as The Herlev Boys or YBC. Copenhagen Casuals (FC Copenhagen) was founded in the mid-1990s under the name Copenhagen Ultras. The group consists of approximately between 50 and 100 people. Several members are active on the extreme right. Copenhagen Casuals Young Boys (FC Copenhagen) is a group of young people which are active in Copenhagen Casuals. The group was formed in 2003 and serves as a springboard to Copenhagen Casuals. Blue Army (Lyngby BK) counts approximately between 70 and 100 people, several persons from the right wing. The Island Boys (OB) is a relatively new group at the Danish hooligan scene, which includes supporting forces from the Odense football environment. The group is non-political. Green City Casuals (Næstved BK) is a non political group that first appeared on 13 April 2006. Membership is estimated to be approximately 15 people. Horsens Casuals (AC Horsens) is a violent group of Horsens fans who have not been active since the 2005/06 season. They were best known for their brawl with Odense Casuals, where there were used golf clubs as weapons. It is said that the group had approximately 100 members. HIK Hooligans (HIK) is a non-political group that emerged in the season of 2005/2006. The group consists of around 25 members and is due to their club’s location in the second best Danish league limited to fewer direct confrontations than the hooligan groups supporting the clubs from the best Danish league. The group moves in the environment around Copenhagen Casuals and has a friendly relationship with this group. The HIK Hooligans is also known as 8911. Supra Esbjerg (Esbjerg fB) is a hooligan group from the city of Esbjerg which does not exist anymore. The group contained a hardcore inner group of between 15 and 20 people and a relatively large youth group taking the city’s size into consideration. There have been many cases of brawl with other fans, however, the group was best known for their showdown with the group Aalborg Casual Youth. Besides the official members of this hooligan groups there are also a lot of so-called hangarounds which means people which are not permanently attached to the groups. France This photo of a match in Lille shows the use of flares by PSV Eindhoven supporters in football hooliganism. Football hooliganism in France is often rooted in social conflict, including racial tension. In the 1990s, fans of Paris Saint-Germain (PSG) fought with supporters from Belgium, England, Germany, Italy and Scotland.[22] There is a long standing north/south rivalry between PSG (representing Paris and by extension northern France) and Olympique de Marseille (representing the South of France) which has encouraged authorities to be extremely mobilised during games between the two teams. Violent fights and post-game riots including car burning, and shop windows smashing have been a regular fixture of PSG-OM games. In 2000, the bitter rivalry turned particularly violent.[23] On 24 May 2001, fifty people were injured when fighting broke out at a match between PSG and Turkish club Galatasaray at the Parc des Princes stadium.[24][25] PSG were initially given a record $571,000 fine, but it was reduced on appeal to $114,000. Galatasaray was initially fined $114,000 by UEFA, but it too was eventually reduced to $28,500.[26] In May 2001, six PSG fans from the Supporters Club, were arrested and charged with assault, carrying weapons, throwing items on the pitch and racism. The six were alleged to have deliberately entered a part of the Parc des Princes stadium where French fans of Turkish origin were standing, in order to attack them. The six were banned from all football stadiums for the duration of their trial.[26][27][28] On 24 November 2006 a PSG fan was shot and killed by police and another seriously injured during fighting between PSG fans and the police. The violence occurred after PSG lost 4-2 to Israeli club Hapoel Tel Aviv at the Parc des Prince in a UEFA Cup match. PSG fans chased a fan of Hapoel Tel Aviv, shouting racist and anti-semitic slogans. A plainclothes police officer who tried to protect the Hapoel fan was attacked, and in the chaos, one fan was shot dead and another seriously injured. In response, the French Interior Minister, Nicolas Sarkozy held a meeting with the president of the French Football League, Frederic Thiriez to discuss racism and violence in football. The director-general of the French police, Michel Gaudin, insisted that measures against football hooliganism had reduced racist incidents to six that season from nineteen in the previous season. Gaudin also stated that 300 known hooligans could be banned from matches.[29] The fan who was shot, was linked with the Boulogne Boys, a group of fans who modelled themselves on British hooligans in the 1980s. The group’s name comes from the Kop of Boulogne (KOB), one of the two main home fan stand at the Parc des Princes. The KOB themselves held a silent memorial march attended by 300 and accused the police office of murdering the fan. They cited bias in the French press who had only given a “one-sided” account of the incident.[29] French President Jacques Chirac condemned violence that led up to the shooting, stating that he was horrified by the reports of racism and anti-Semitism. French Prime Minister, Dominique de Villepin called for new, tougher measures to deal with football hooligans. Prosecutors opened an inquiry into the incident, to determine whether the officer involved should face criminal charges.[30][31] Before a home match against Sochaux on 4 January 2006, two Arab youths were punched and kicked by white fans outside the entrance to the KOB. During the match racist insults were aimed at black players and a PSG player of Indian origin, Vikash Dhorasoo was told to “go sell peanuts in the metro”.[22][citation needed] In the recent years, following UK’s example, France’s legislation has changed, including more and more banning of violent fans from stadiums. The threat of dissolution of fan groups has also tempered the outward rivalry and violence of a number of fans. Known violent fans under ban sentences are to report to the nearest Police station on nights of game, to prove they are not anywhere in proximity to the stadium. Germany German football hooligans with masked faces in a 1990s match. Some football hooliganism in Germany has been linked to neo-Nazism and far right groups.[32] In June 1998, after a FIFA World Cup match in France between Germany and Yugoslavia a French policeman was beaten to the point of brain damage by German fans. Following the incident, German police contacted many of the known 2,000+ German hooligans to warn them they would be arrested if they travelled to upcoming matches in France.[33] A German fan was arrested in 1998 and charged with attempted murder[34][35] and in 1999, four more Germans were convicted in the attack[36][37] In 2001, Markus Warnecke, the German fan who was accused of leading the attack, was found guilty and jailed for five years and banned from France for ten years, and from all sports facilities for five years.[38] German police prepare for hooliganism by wearing riot gear and using police dogs. In March 2005, German football fans fought with police and rival fans at a friendly match between Germany and Slovenia in Celje, Slovenia, damaging cars and shops, and shouting racist slogans. The German Football Association (DFB) apologised for the behaviour. As a result, 52 people were arrested; 40 Germans and 12 Slovenians.[39][40] Following a 2-0 defeat to Slovakia in Bratislava, Slovakia, German hooligans fought with the local police, and six people were injured and two were taken into custody. The DFB again apologised for fans who chanted racist slogans.[41] In June 2006, Germany beat Poland in a World Cup Finals match in Dortmund, which led to violent clashes. The police detained over 300 people in Dortmund and German fans threw chairs, bottles and fireworks at the police. Of the 300 arrested, 120 were known hooligans.[42] In October 2006, a task force was established to deal with violence and racism in German football stadiums.[43] The worst incident took place at a Third division (North) match between the Hertha BSC Berlin B-team and Dynamo Dresden, in which 23 policemen were injured.[44][45] In February 2007 in Saxony, all German lower league matches, from the fifth division downward were cancelled after about 800 fans attacked 300 police officers (injuring 39 of them) after a match between Lokomotive Leipzig and Erzgebirge Aue II.[46] There were minor disturbances after the Germany and England match during the 2010 FIFA World Cup. An English flag was burned down amongst a mob of German supporters in Duisburg-Hamborn in Germany.[47] Greece In April 2007, all sports stadiums were closed down in Greece for two weeks following the death of a fan in a pre-arranged fight between hooligans in Athens on 29 March. The fight involved 500 fans of rival Super League Greece clubs Panathinaikos, which is based in Athens, and Olympiacos, which is based in nearby Piraeus. The Greek government immediately suspended all team sports in Greece and severed the ties between teams and their supporters’ organizations.[3] A Third Division match between Panetolikos and Ilioupoli was stopped for thirty minutes when players and fans clashed following a Panetolikos disallowed goal. Two players and a coach were sent to the hospital.[48] On 18 April, rival fans clashed with each other and riot police in Ioannina during and after a Greek Cup semi final match between local rivals PAS Giannena and Larissa. There was trouble during the game in which Larissa won 2–0. Fans set fire to rubbish bins and smashed shop windows, while police tried to disperse them by firing tear gas.[3][4] On 10 October 2009, a group of about 30 hooligans disrupted an “Under 17” match between local rivals PAOK and Aris Thessaloniki. Among the injured were a group of Aris Thessaloniki players and their coach, a veteran PAOK player and another official. On 7 October 2011, a group of Greek supporters firebombed the away section of a Euro 2012 qualifying match against Croatia in Athens. On March 18, 2012, during the match for the Super League Greek Championship in Athens Olympic Stadium between Panathinaikos and Olympiakos, home team Panathinaikos’s fans who were inside the stadium attacked police forces with Molotov bombs, causing extended damages to the stadium, while police forces were unable to keep peace. Hungary The most notorious derby in Hungary is between Ferencvárosi Torna Club (based in Ferencváros) and Újpest FC (based in Újpest). Derbies between these teams are often violent.[49] Other traditional derbies involve Debreceni VSC (from Debrecen), Diósgyőri VTK (from Miskolc), Nyíregyháza Spartacus FC (from Nyíregyháza, currently playing in Hungary’s second division), Zalaegerszegi TE and Haladás VSE (from Szombathely.) Italy During a Lazio-Padova match in 1987, a 10 meter long banner announced the arrival of a new Ultra group on the scene, Irriducibili Lazio. Irriducibili rose to power in the Roman Curva Nord and revolutionized the way S.S. Lazio fans supported their side. No more drums were used but English chanting styles were adopted. This contrasted boldly with the Italian style of the Eagles Supporters, and by 1992, Irriducibili were by far Lazio’s most powerful group as the Eagles Supporters disbanded. Fighting in every single stadium of the Italian Peninsula, along with Brigate Gialloblù of Hellas Verona In February 2001, AS Roma fans fought with police and with Liverpool fans, and five English supporters were stabbed.[50] After a weekend of violence in January 2007, the president of the Italian Football Federation (FIGC) threatened to halt all league football. An official of amateur club Sammartinese died when he was caught up in a fight between players and fans in Luzzi and in Florence, a Livorno fan needed 20 stitches in his head after being attacked by Fiorentina fans. About 100 Atalanta fans tried to attack coaches carrying Catania fans and fought with police and at a Serie D game, a linesman was hit by a metal drum thrown from the stands.[51] In February 2007 the Italian Football Federation (FIGC) suspended all football matches after a policeman was killed at the Serie A match between Catania and Palermo. The policeman, Officer Filippo Raciti, died when he was struck in the face by a small explosive as the police were trying to deal with the fighting outside the ground. Netherlands Football hooliganism in the Netherlands began after rioting between supporters of Feyenoord and English club Tottenham Hotspur at the 1974 UEFA Cup Final.{{[52]}} Since then, several Dutch clubs have been associated with hooliganism, PSV Eindhoven, Ajax, Feyenoord, FC Utrecht, FC Groningen, Twente Enschede and ADO Den Haag. The most violent rivalry is between Ajax and Feyenoord. On 16 June 1990, English fans were arrested for brawling in Amsterdam before a friendly match.[53] The bloodiest football hooligan encounter has been the Battle of Beverwijk between Feyenoord and Ajax hooligans on 23 March 1997, in which several people were seriously injured and Carlo Picornie was killed.[54] On 26 April 1999, 80 football fans were arrested when Feyenoord supporters rioted after a cup match with NAC Breda.[55] The 2002-03 season was marked by continued fighting between fans of Ajax and FC Utrecht, and between fans of Ajax and Feyenoord.[56] In 2006, a riot broke out between Feyenoord fans and French police in Nancy.[57] Norway Hooliganism has escalated in Norway in recent years, though the activity still can not be compared to that in neighboring countries such as Sweden and Denmark. The little that exists of hooligans and casuals in Norway are usually smaller fractions of the s

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